Socio-economic development in Africa: crucial challenges
In current research, we consider socioeconomic development of Africa. In particular, we focused on current demographic development in Africa, the consequences of demographic changes on the continent, urbanization problems and the effects of migration on population dynamics. Our research has identified the following problems of socioeconomic development of Africa. Currently, Africa is facing the highest urbanization rates in the world, however it remains the least urbanized continent. In the long term, an aging population in Africa is projected to deal with chronic physical and mental disabilities that will put pressure on health care and pension funds in the future. Fertility levels are gradually declining in many African countries, the rapid growth of the cities and the faster emigration from rural areas will be one of the most important issues of development over the next decades. Among current problems of socioeconomic development of Africa is also international migration. The main drivers of international migration on the continent are unstable political situation and climate change. Integrated and interconnected environmental changes, such as droughts and floods, and over exploitation of resources, are factors contributing to internal and international migration in the region. Changes in the age structure and entry into a new stage of the demographic transition indicate an increase in the number of labor force and an improvement in per capita income. Given the right combination of investment and development programs, the influence of a changing age structure with a falling demographic burden will contribute to the economic growth and development of African countries.
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